martes, 16 de febrero de 2016


A didactic planning for each area will be elaborated by the team that teaches in the same school year.
Didactic plannings must include:
·         Sequence and timing of the contents.
·         Profile of each key competence or relation between the evaluative learning standards and each competence. It will make the ealuation easier. 
·         Evaluation criteria.
·         Sarategies and instruments for the students' learning.
·         Methodological and didactic decisions.
·         Procedures of elaboration and evaluation of the curricular adaptations. 
·         Didactic resources.

·         Students' materials, including textbooks. 


The first level that we are going to analyze is the Grammar translation Method:
In the presentation, there is a long list of vocabulary items.
The vocabulary is always translated.
Explanation of the grammatical rules (they explain the grammatical rules in Spanish)
Main Objectives (till the XX century):
Reading and writing
Grammar structures and translation
Study of morphology and syntax.
Memorization of grammar rules and long list of vocabulary items.
Teacher-centered. (the teacher is the centre of the class)
Textbooks are fundamental.
Some aspects that can be analyzed:
1. No use of the second language in the class, except for translation; they usually use Spanish and they use English only for translations.
2. The vocabulary is learnt by memorizing long list.
3. Reading and writing are the center of the class: no place for listening and speaking.
4. Grammar and syntax are extremely important for language learning. Grammar is taught deductively.
Deductive: Teacher gives the rules and the students apply them.
Inductive:  they need to deal with the English discovering.
This Grammar method should attach on the need and necessities that the students have.

1. Classroom interaction was conducted exclusively in the target language (lengua como objeto de estudio).
2. Only everyday vocabulary and sentences were taught.
3. Oral communication skills were built up in a carefully graded progression…
4. Grammar was taught inductively.
5. New teaching points were introduced orally.
6. Concrete vocabulary was taught trough demonstration, objects and pictures…
7. Both speech and listening comprehension were taught.
8. Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized.
Summing up/ Main objectives
Objectives: Conversation, discussion.
Use of the mother tongue is forbidden.
Mainly oral production and listening.
No translation.
No grammar rules. Inductive.
Lot of imagination and inspiration.
Tiring for the teacher
A problem for shy students.
Summary of a lesson:
Presentation of the topic in the target language.
Students repeat (chorus, whole class, groups, rows, …)
The teacher explains a topic normally from real life situations. She uses objects, mime, etc as the language used in the target language.
Use of songs and games in the classroom.
Use of wall charts, posters, and visual aids used in the classroom.
Listening and speaking are promoted from the very beginning.
“Children at an early age like playing with the spoken language”

The audio-lingual method, Army Method, or New Key, is a style of teaching used in teaching foreign languages. It is based on behaviorist theory, which professes that certain traits of living things, and in this case humans, could be trained through a system of reinforcement—correct use of a trait would receive positive feedback while incorrect use of that trait (cualidad) would receive negative feedback. They use vocabulary, phonetics, sentence patterns and the construction of drills.


Community language learning (CLL) is an approach in which students work together to develop what aspects of a language they would like to learn. The teacher acts as a counsellor and a paraphraser, while the learner acts as a collaborator, although sometimes this role can be changed.
Examples of these types of communities have recently arisen with the explosion of educational resources for language learning on the Web.
It was created especially for adult learners who might fear to appear foolish.
Teacher becomes a language counsellor
Students work in small groups
Teacher coordinates, guides, helps…
Students feel confident

Suggestopedia (US English) or Suggestopædia (UK English) is a teaching method developed by the Bulgarian psychotherapist Georgi Lozanov. It is used in different fields, but mostly in the field of foreign language learning. Lozanov has claimed that by using this method a teacher's students can learn a language approximately three to five times as quickly as through conventional teaching methods.
Suggestopedia has been called a pseudoscience. It strongly depends on the trust that students develop towards the method by simply believing that it works
The intended purpose of Suggestopedia was to enhance learning by tapping into the power of suggestion. Lozanov claims that “suggestopedia is a system for liberation”; liberation from the “preliminary negative concept regarding the difficulties in the process of learning” that is established throughout their life in the society.
The only major linguistic problems in the language classroom are memorization and integration.
The result of the appropriate use of suggestion is an enormous increase in the individual’s ability to learn. (lozanov)

The Silent Way is commonly defined as a teaching method for foreign languages in which the teachers are mostly silent and use rods and charts as their main teaching tools. Although Silent Way teachers do use rods and charts most of the time there can be Silent Way teaching without these tools while at the same time there may be teachers who use the suggested tools but do not really follow the Silent Way.
Teaching should be subordinated to learning.
Students should be able to use the language for self expression.
Students become independent by relying on themselves (confiando en si mismos).
Only the learner can do learning.

Total physical response (TPR) is a language-teaching method developed by James Asher, It is based on the coordination of language and physical movement. In TPR, instructors give commands to students in the target language, and students respond with whole-body actions. The method is an example of the comprehension approach to language teaching. Listening serves two purposes; it is both a means of understanding messages in the language being learned, and a means of learning the structure of the language itself. Grammar is not taught explicitly, but is induced from the language input.
Also named comprehension Approach.
Listening comprehension first.
Use of commands to direct behavior.
Commands are given to get students to perform an action.
The action makes the meaning of the command clear.
Analysis of the video watched.
Learning the keywords, understanding the meaning. Listen, watch and do. It’s important to this methodology to follow exactly the same order.
It resembles to the learning of their first language, however, the time of exposition with the foreign language is very short (3 hours a week). The children will search the function of the language. The classroom is an artificial setting, but other places as home and others are natural settings.  It’s important to motivate your students and congratulates them.

Observing how children acquire their mother tongue.
The child chooses to speak when it is ready.
The teacher helps his/her students to understand him/her by using pictures and occasional words in the students’ native language.
Students are permitted to use their native language along with the target language.
The natural approach is a method of language teaching developed by Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell in the late 1970s and early 1980s. It aims to foster naturalistic language acquisition in a classroom setting, and to this end it emphasizes communication, and places decreased importance on conscious grammar study and explicit correction of student errors. Efforts are also made to make the learning environment as stress-free as possible. In the natural approach, language output is not forced, but allowed to emerge spontaneously after students have attended to large amounts of comprehensible language input.

Everyone has a natural desire not only to understand himself but also to communicate with others. The closer people live together, the more this desire becomes a necessity.
The first step in any learning process must be the identification on interests, needs and motivations.
Language as a medium of communication
Communication embraces function and notions.
Communicative and meaningful activities.
Learner centered approach or motivation centered approach.
Concept of need:
Ways in which the learner will be called upon to use the language in situations he may meet.
Personal and social development of the student, including the development of study skills and self-reliance.
Meaning is paramount.
The communicative approach is based on the idea that learning language successfully comes through having to communicate real meaning. When learners are involved in real communication, their natural strategies for language acquisition will be used, and this will allow them to learn to use the language.
CLT/ Communicative language teaching
CLT represents a reaction to previous methodological principles.
They support what was called “the development of communicative profiency in the target language”, rather than knowledge of its structures.
Three main principles can be inferred from CLT practices:
- The communication principle: learning is promoted by activities involving real communication.
- The task principle: learning is enhanced through the use of activities in which language is employed for carrying out meaningful tasks.
- The meaningfulness principle: the learning process is supported by language which is meaningful to the student. Activities should consequently be selected according to how well they involve the learner in authentic and meaningful language use.

It’s a process of “thinking in English”.
If you want to ask for the age of a person… then… how old…?
Functions instead of grammar exercises.
Listening, speaking, reading and writing, according to needs of the students.
Grammar aspects may be studied when students benefit from them.
This process comes at the end, not at the beginning.


Hot potatoes includes six applications: These applications enable you to create interactive:
  • Multiple choice
  • Short-answer
  • Jumbled sentences
  • Crosswords
  • Matching and ordering
  • Gap-fill exercises.
They can be uploaded to the World Wide Web.
Hot potatoes is freeware, and you may use it for any purpose or project.

  • Jmatch: matching and ordering.
  • Jcross: crossword
  • Jmix: jumbed sentences
  • Jcloze: fill in the gaps
  • Jquiz: multiple choice, true or false, text entry or short answer.

Hot Potatoes suite: THE MASHER

The masher is a tool for automatically compiling hot potatoes exercises into units.
Imagine you have five hot potatoes exercises that form a single unit materials and you want to build HTML from all the exercises, with the same colours and appearance settings; you also want to link the exercise together using the navigation buttons, and create an index file for the unit. The masher will do it for you.

Files designed with HP should be saved in two different formats:
HP FILE (extensions: jmt, jms, jqz, jcl, jcw)
HTML FILE (to be used with any web browser)

A Jmix activity produces a jumbled word or sentence activity.
Letters of a single word may be jumbled, or the words of a sentence.
Jmix uses the standard and drag-and-drop types of output files should be saved in towo different formats.

Jquiz can create four different types of questions:
Multiple choice
hybrid (a short-answer question that turns into a multiple choice questions after several attempts), and
multi-select (in which the learner has to choose several of a set of options, then check the choices).

The Jmatch program creates matching or ordering exercises.
A list of fixed items appears on the left (These can be pictures or text), with jumbled items on the right.
This can be used for matching vocabulary to picture or translations or for ordering sentencesto form a sequence or a conversation.

The learner choose an answer by clicking on a button.
If the answer is correct, the button caption will change to a smily face :-) and if it is wrong, it will change to an x.
In either case, the student will see the feedback specific to that answer, explaining why it is right or wong (assuming you write the feedback when you make the exercise!).
If the answer is wrong, the learner can continue choosing answer until a correct answer is selected.
Once a correct answer is chosen, the scaring is “frozen”, but the learner can still click on buttons to see the feedback for other answers without penalty.

Jcloze program creates gap-fill exercises.
Unlimited correct answers can e specified for each gap, and the student can ask for a hint and see the letter of the correct answer.
A specific clue can also be included for each gap.
Automatic scoring is also included. The program allowa gapping of selected words, or automatic gapping of every new word in a text.


Files should be saved in the same folder.
HP does not include software for the edition of images, sound or video.
Suggested software: Gimp, Youtube editor, Audacity,...
Use long names, without spaces.
Browsers read spaces as : 20%

There may be naigation errors. Reading_in_English …..Reading in English.

viernes, 12 de febrero de 2016


Reading aloud or reading silently?

Silent reading: Scanning, skimming, intensive and extensive.

Reading aloud

In the first years of primary education storytelling plays an important role in the process of learning.
More effective if the story is told (or read) aloud due to the fact that learners become more involved and consequently more motivated.
Students can show that they recognize written and spoken forms and the relationship between form and meaning.
At early and intermediate levels can be used to check bottom-up processing skills or simply pronunciation.

It is not a very authentic activity.
It is a boring activity because while one student is reading, the others can easily lose attention.
It’s not an interactive activity because students only have to recite.

Silent reading 

The most common and natural type of reading.
Different goals can be pursued depending on the predetermined purpose of reading:
Scanning: search of specific information within a text: relevant dates, numbers in a directory, times on a timetable or key concepts in an academic text.
Skimming. Very common in everyday life; used to get a global impression of the content of a text (the gist of the text). Requires a definite reading competence because it implies an overall view of the text. It Develops students’ self-confidence since they obtain a lot of information without needing much reading.


Focuses on linguistic and content accuracy.
It is very important in some educational contexts because it is used to exemplify different aspects of the lexical, syntactic and discourse systems.
Full understanding of the literal meaning presented in the written passage.

Oriented towards grasping a general understanding of the text for the purpose of enjoyment or learning.
Texts are usually long such as books or articles and reading them takes extended periods of time.
Extensive reading is not usually performed during class time but it is known that this activity helps students to improve their reading abilities.

jueves, 11 de febrero de 2016


It is an obvious fact that languages are spoken before they are written. There are people who communicate perfectly in the spoken language without being able to express themselves in writing.When introducing the skills we should know:

- What stage the learners are at in the acquisition of their first language skills,
- To ensure that we do not interfere with the learning process of their own language.
- Only when reading and writing have been acquired in L1 can we begin the task with L2.

At beginner levels in particular writing practice should be aimed at:
- Reinforcing the learning of linguistic elements which have been practiced orally,
- Without forgetting to introduce our pupils to vocabulary practice and the structures of written language itself

Integrated skills: It means that we can create activities, tasks where the four basic skills are practiced.
Integrated reading and writing: Reading and writing are closely related:
a) Reading is a source of input and model for written language.
b) There is a continual process of feedback between the two skills.

A) Reading as a source of input and model for written language:
- Students need to receive language, a comprehensible input, by means of reading a sufficient amount in order to develop their capacity.
- Beginners should be given models adapted to their level.
B) Continual process of feedback between the two skills
- We constantly read what we have written to revise content and grammar, organise the text, etc. so there is a continuous feedback.
Integrating speaking and writing: When we are writing something we usually “try it out” by pronouncing it internally in what is known as “inner speech”.


Writing is clearly a complex multifaceted process requiring the ability to manipulate many sub-skills simultaneously:
- “Involves being creative, spelling, grammar, punctuation, choice of appropriate words, sentences linking and text construction”.

Graphic or visual skills

Spelling: Difference between pronunciation and spelling in the English language.
How can our students improve their spelling?
We advise them to:
a) Select priority words to learn,
b) Get plentiful, regular practice,
c) Know about the language
d) Learn techniques,
e) Develop an interest in words,
f) Check their work,
g) Have confidence in themselves.
Punctuation: Learning how to use punctuation correctly is a slow and laborious process. It should be started from the very beginning.
Layout: there are certain conventions on how to write a letter, construct a paragraph, and organize a written text and so on that are culturally determined.
This refers to the students’ skill in making efficient use of grammatical structures and constructions.

Expressive or stylistic skills

This includes the learners’ capacity to select the most appropriate meaning in a range of styles and registers: sociolinguistic competence.

Rhetorical skills 

This refers to the ability to use linguistic cohesive devices – what we call “connectors” and “modifiers”- in order to link parts of a text into logically related sequences: discourse competence.

Organizational Skills 

The organization of pieces of information into paragraphs and text.